Jesus and the Spirit Part 7

Text: Lk. 11:53-12:12

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Introduction

  • Like many of you, I am concerned about the world situation at this time, especially with the invasion of Ukraine and the implications.
  • As followers of Jesus, we need to remind ourselves of what his world was like and what many wanted him to do in that world.
    • The people of Israel were living under the rule of Rome. The family of Herod ruled only with Caesar’s permission. Efforts to rebel against the Roman regime were crushed. The cross was a sign of Rome’s fierce determination to maintain its control & the social order.
    • The Jews hated that social reality. They desired their freedom. They longed for the Messiah, one like David, who would overthrow Roman rule and re-establish the kingdom of God that would resemble the glory days of the kingdom of David.
    • Jesus entered that world of intense desire and expectation. He came proclaiming and teaching that the kingdom of God was coming near. No matter how carefully he taught, people misunderstood him.
    • Still, the crowds grew with their Messianic excitement and great expectations. At the same time, resistance increased as Jesus seemed to threaten what social stability the Jewish leaders could maintain. His preaching would drive many of the religious leaders into cooperation with Pilate, a Roman governor empowered by Rome to keep order.

Explore the Text

Jesus Spoke First to His Disciples (11:53-12:3).

  • His primary focus is not on critics or on the huge crowd.
  • The critics are harsh, powerful & dangerous. Jesus does not back off.
    • Jesus avoids two extremes: denying the dangers of their threats or living in fear of them and trying to please them.
    • Jesus addresses them & often answers their provocative questions.
      • The parable of the soils (soil 1) provides insight.
    • Filled with the HS, Jesus does not fear them. See why in 12:11-12.
  • The crowds are there, but Jesus does not speak to please them.
    • He works in the power of the Spirit and with compassion as he deals with their suffering & teaches.
    • His words would have upset them just as they may upset you.
    • The parable of the four soils in Lk. 8 indicates the problem of trying to transform people into authentic disciples. (soil 2 & 3)
  • Jesus’ primary focus is the formation of mature disciples.
    • Beginning as a disciple is not enough. (See soil 4 in the parable)
    • As Jesus addresses the crowd, his disciples cannot sit around and be pleased that Jesus is persuading someone else!
    • As his disciples, we constantly return to His familiar teachings and discover new depths of meaning & application in our own lives.
    • This lifelong relationship with Jesus trains us for life in the kingdom modeled on his life: Jesus trained his disciples to become the kind of people who would do the things He would do if he were living their lives (Willard).
  • “Beware of the leaven of the Pharisee” (hypocrisy) (12:1-3)
    • To understand his point here, read and meditate on Mt. 5-7.
      • Jesus contrasts an authentic life in the kingdom to the outward performance of a well-managed religious life.
    • The specific context for what he is saying is found in 11:37-52 when Jesus upset the religious specialist & experts who are his critics.
      • His words disrupt their comfortable status and traditions.
      • How would Jesus address our patterns of thought & action?
    • Morris on leaven: The metaphor would have been more obvious then than now, for people tended to make their own bread and everyone would be familiar with the way a little leaven slowly transforms a large lump of dough. Leaven speaks of a penetration that is slow, insidious and constant. In this case, the leaven is hypocrisy. The practice of saying one thing and doing another eats at the moral life like a canker.[1]
    • Morris on Hypocrisy: Many things could be said about hypocrisy, but on this occasion, Jesus chooses to point out that it is short-sighted. The art of being a hypocrite depends on the ability to keep some things concealed. When concealment is no longer possible the hypocrite is inevitably unmasked. At present, the Pharisees may have certain things covered up, or hidden. But in the end, on judgment day, all will be known. People may think they have said things safely in secret, but all will be brought into the light.[2]
    • Spiritual integrity includes who we are in secret: what we think is hidden from others is known by God and will be revealed.
      • The great problem: We are satisfied & often proud of who we are in our public performances.
      • We hide the reality of who we are from others and often from ourselves through our denial and rationalization.

What Jesus Says to His Disciples Makes Many Uncomfortable!

  • Do not live in fear of people! I tell you my friends do not fear those who kill the body.” (12:4-7)
    • Hear the Relationship of Love: “I tell you my friends!”
    • Do not be afraid of people in this world who can kill you!!
      • Jesus has dangerous critics who are scheming to trap him.
      • Fear of what others think will keep us silent for Jesus.
      • If I live in fear of their rejection & threats, they will control distract me from staying close to & trusting in Jesus.
  • I warn you whom to fear [and I encourage you not to be afraid of him]!
    • Fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.
    • Morris on Fear of God: The fear of God is rather out of fashion these days; we much prefer to stress the love of God. But, while there is a sense in which perfect love casts out fear (1 John 4:18), there is another in which fear is quite compatible with love. This kind of fear is continually regarded in the Bible as a necessary ingredient in right living. It is an attitude compounded of a recognition of the greatness and the righteousness of God on the one hand and our readiness to sin on the other. Fear of this kind guards against presumption and must find its place in a right faith.[3]
    • Jesus tells his friends, why they do not need to live in fear! God values and cares for you!
      • God cares for the sparrows! You are more valuable than many sparrows!
      • Do you value your life enough to center it on God’s purpose for you? In 12:13-34, we are to treasure God and his purpose for our lives as we live in his presence now.
    • How do you make sense of Jesus as he teaches this?
  • The Reality of God’s Judgement: Future judgement & justice. (12:8-12)
    • If I acknowledge Jesus before men, He will also acknowledge me before the angels of God. This is my comfort.
    • If I doubt God’s ultimate Judgement & fear people, I will not acknowledge Jesus.
      • I may escape persecution, but in the long run, I risk Jesus denying me before the angels of God. (see Mt. 7:21-23)
    • Morris: Our attitude to Jesus is all-important. If anyone acknowledges him before people, Jesus will acknowledge him before the angels of God (Matthew has ‘before my Father who is in heaven’). This is warm encouragement for judgment day. But anyone who denies (‘disowns’, neb) Jesus will face the ultimate denial. He has refused to number himself among Jesus’ followers. When he stands before God his choice will be ratified. Jesus leaves his hearers in no doubt but that eternal issues are involved in their attitude to him.[4]
  • A Warning: Do not blaspheme the Holy Spirit. (see Lk. 21:10-19; Mt. 10:22-32)
    • Morris: This leads to the solemn thought that there is a sin so serious that it cannot be forgiven. Jesus introduces this with the statement that a word spoken against himself can be forgiven. This does not mean that such a word is a trifle. The preceding verse has shown something of the dignity of the Son of man: he is not to be taken lightly. Yet even sin against this august personage may be forgiven. People may blaspheme and then repent; the blasphemy is not their final word. But he who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit is in a much worse case. We must understand this, not of the uttering of any form of words, but of the set of the life (‘It denotes the conscious and wicked rejection of the saving power and grace of God towards man’). This blasphemy is so serious because it concerns the whole person, not a few words spoken on any one occasion. Matthew and Mark put these words in connection with the Beelzebul controversy and this helps us with the meaning. Then Jesus’ opponents attributed his works of mercy to the devil. They called good evil. People in such a situation cannot repent and seek forgiveness: they lack a sense of sin; they reject God’s competence to declare what is right. It is this continuing attitude that is the ultimate sin. God’s power to forgive is not abated. But this kind of sinner no longer has the capacity to repent and believe.[5]
    • ESV Study Bible Key to understanding this passage is the distinction Jesus makes between, on one hand, the extreme case of blasphemy against “the Holy Spirit” and, on the other hand, the lesser case of speaking in a dishonorable way against “the Son of Man.” One who asks to be forgiven for disrespectful words hastily spoken against Jesus (the Son of Man) will be forgiven. (Note, e.g., Peter’s rejection of Jesus [see 22:54–62] and his subsequent restoration [John 21:15–19].) But blasphemy against the Holy Spirit–that is, the persistent and unrepentant resistance against the work of the Holy Spirit and his message concerning Jesus (cf. Acts 7:51)–this, Jesus says, will not be forgiven. The person who persists in hardening his heart against God, against the work of the Holy Spirit, and against the provision of Christ as Savior, is outside the reach of God’s provision for forgiveness and salvation. Christians often worry that they have committed this sin, but such a concern is itself evidence of an openness to the work of the Spirit.
    • Denial of Jesus does not have to be a final stance: contrast Peter and John in the gospels vs. Acts.
  • A Resource: The Holy Spirit Will Help You in the Moment of Crisis
    • Morris: The Holy Spirit… is our helper. He is present with God’s people, especially with God’s persecuted people, to give them the assistance they need when they stand before the authorities. Jesus speaks first of being brought before the synagogues, which points to persecution by the Jews. The synagogue could be a court or a school as well as a place of worship. He speaks also of the rulers and the authorities, a comprehensive expression which might refer to Jews or Gentiles or both. Being accused in this way could be a terrifying experience. But Jesus tells his own not to be anxious at such a time about what they are to answer (the Greek term is often used in the technical sense of ‘make a legal defence’). The reason? The Holy Spirit will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say (cf. 21:14f.). Notice that the Spirit’s teaching will come at that moment. He will not instruct people some time beforehand. What you ought to say might well be rendered ‘what you must say’. Jesus is concerned with the duty that rests compellingly on believers even in such a time of danger. He is not telling them how to secure acquittal. He is telling them how they may best serve God in their trying situation. The Spirit will inspire them with such a defense that through it the gospel will be proclaimed and God’s purposes be set forward.[6]

Conclusion: We may be entering a time in the history of the world and in our country when we will experience great difficulties and persecution.

  • We need to prepare ourselves as disciples of Jesus and learn to work with the Holy Spirit as we become people of faithful courage and love.
  • Someone might ask, “Why would I follow Jesus if persecution is possible? I just want to be happy!”
    • The stability of this world is more fragile than we realize.
    • The promises of the political and social elite: trust us, we will make you happy.
    • Ecclesiastes—all of these promises are like a whisper of smoke. Jesus, store up treasures with God.

Commentary on Luke 11:53-12:12

D.L Bock

The reaction to Jesus is strong. The leaders press around him and try to think of questions that may provoke him. Lying in wait, they hope to catch him in something he might say. Enedreuō (“to lie in wait”) and thēreuō (“to catch”) are hunting terms. The opposition to Jesus has become a hunt with Jesus as the prey. But this time the hunters will be shooting themselves.

Luke is showing not only how the opposition grew but also how they failed to heed Jesus’ earlier call to repent (11:29–32). Luke also reveals what piety does not look like. The way to God is not that of the Jewish leadership. The way to God is not in a piety of pride and rules without care and compassion. The God-lover should not point the finger but lend a helping hand.

Discipleship: Trusting God (12:1–48) Since the way of Jesus is different from that of the leadership, understanding the nature of discipleship is crucial. This section treats such concerns. Disciples must fear God and stand up for him in the midst of persecution. They must avoid dependence on material things. They must trust God and realize that they are accountable to him. The essence of discipleship is fearing God and putting him first. To share God’s priorities is the disciples’ call. To learn from God means to follow him.

Fear God and Confess Jesus (12:1–12)* The pressure of the Pharisees’ example, along with the rise of persecution, prompts Jesus to warn his disciples about whose opinion they value. Peer pressure is a given in any culture. The power of those who seek conformity is very strong. Persecution methods can be strong, controlling and painful. The book of Acts tells of beatings, floggings and stonings. Economic pressure was also sometimes applied, along with social ostracism. The pressures to conform are still great. But Jesus issues a call in this passage to be strong and resist such pressure.

In the midst of growing crowds and official opposition Jesus issues a warning. The setting of his words is not insignificant. Even though people are practically crawling over one another to get to Jesus, the disciples should not be fooled by current popularity and should recall the level of opposition Jesus has faced. Popularity can breed a desire to remain popular and thus to soften the hard truth of our sinfulness before God. So Jesus warns, “Be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees.” Leaven (NIV yeast) was a symbol of corruption (Ex 12:14–20; 1 Cor 5:6). The Pharisees’ hypocrisy has just been discussed in 11:39–41. Jesus is saying that the desire to impress can lead to a double life. The way of the Pharisees is not the way for Jesus’ disciples.

Hypocrisy will not work, because everything is revealed before God. The secrets of people’s hearts will be revealed (Rom 2:15; 1 Cor 4:5). God’s omniscience means that there is nothing concealed that will not be disclosed, or hidden that will not be made known. This includes words said in the dark or whispered in private rooms. A private room (tameion) was the innermost apartment in a house. So even things said deep within one’s home and mind are known to God. Even these things will be proclaimed from the housetops one day. What is done in the basement will be revealed on mountaintops. We may divide our activities into public and private, visible and unseen, but there is no such division with God’s vision. The walls we build up to protect our psyche and rationalize our behavior cannot keep out the eyes of God.

Now we might debate whether the passage stresses the revealing of sin or the exposure of righteousness. The previous statements about hypocrisy make a negative force likely here, but the following call to fear God may also suggest that God’s positive response is in view. The choice between the options may be a false one. God responds to all that we do, and his justice in the future will balance any injustice that exists today.

So given the pressure to do one thing in public and another in private, Jesus reminds the disciples that they should fear God. They should fear not those who kill the body but the One who has power to throw … into hell.Human beings’ power over life is limited. The life that counts is the life to come. We should not fear rejection or even martyrdom. The Jews understood this as well: “Let us not fear him who thinks he kills; for a great struggle and peril of the soul awaits in eternal torment those who transgress the ordinance of God” (4 Maccabees 13:14–15). There is no prosperity theology here, nor is there any glossing over of the rejection disciples may face. Standing up for God will mean opposition; they had better be prepared.

But they can also be assured that God is aware of their situation no matter how bad it gets. Even five sparrows that sell for a few pennies do not escape God’s attention. These sparrows were the cheapest thing sold in the ancient market, and an assarion (Greek form of a Latin loanword) was the lowest valued Roman coin, being worth one-sixteenth of a denarius or a half-hour’s minimum wage. God cares for those insignificant birds, and he cares for the disciple. He knows the number of hairs on one’s head, and he knows that people are more valuable than sparrows. So we need not fear even the direst of persecutions, because God knows what is taking place.

What it all comes down to is a choice of allegiance, an identification with Jesus. Those who acknowledge Jesus before human beings will receive due reward. The Son of Man, that is, Jesus, will acknowledge them before the angelic witnesses of heaven; they will stand accepted for eternity. A picture of this truth is Stephen’s martyrdom in Acts 7:54–59. On the other hand, those who deny Jesus will face a similar denial before the angels.

Jesus raises the issue of blasphemy against the Spirit, a sin that cannot be forgiven in contrast to a word spoken against the Son of Man. This statement has led to considerable debate. Is the blasphemy attributing Jesus’ work to the power of Satan (11:14–20)? Is it a reference to apostasy? Is it rejecting the apostles’ preaching about Jesus, since that was Spirit-empowered preaching? Or is it not so much a single act as a persistent rejection of the Spirit’s testimony about Jesus? This last option, the obstinate rejection of Jesus, is the most likely meaning. Not only does this remark fit all the Synoptic contexts in which this saying appears, but it fits with the importance Jesus places on the preached gospel message (Lk 24:44–47) and corresponds to the warnings the apostles issue at the end of their preaching (Acts 3:22–26; 13:38–41). To fear God means to choose Jesus. To reject him is to reject the Spirit who testifies constantly to him. Exposure to Jesus and church attendance are not the same thing as receiving the testimony of the Spirit and embracing the hope of the gospel. The Son of Man accepts only those who respond to the testimony of the Spirit (1 Cor 2:14–15).

Jesus’ remarks prepare anyone thinking about responding to him for a world that will pressure those who embrace Jesus. The world may persecute disciples, but Jesus will honor those who seek him.

The pressure to deny Jesus may be great, but so is God’s provision as disciples stand up for him: “When you are brought before synagogues, rulers and authorities, do not worry about how you will defend yourselves or what you will say.” Jesus promises that the Spirit will come to their aid. Again, examples of fulfillment of this promise occur in Acts (4:13–22).

The disciple may face a hostile world, but loving God means standing up for him. Behind that backbone and resolve to face the opposition is an understanding that we must fear God and know that he sees both the disciple and the accuser. What is done in secret will be revealed in public before God one day. Then the disciple will stand though others fall.[7]

Leon Morris

11:53–54. Jesus’ opponents were incensed. The scribes (another name for the lawyers) and the Phariseestried to trap Jesus. That they began to press him hard shows their intensity and their vehemence. Their method was to try to provoke him into some indiscreet saying which could be used against him. The word rendered catch is thēreusai, which is used of hunting wild beasts. It is a vivid word for intense opposition.

The leaven of the Pharisees (12:1–3)

The saying about the leaven is in all three Synoptic Gospels, but that about revealing what is covered is lacking in Mark and is found in a different context in Matthew. This should not trouble us greatly. There is no reason for holding that the selection or arrangement of material must be the same in all three Gospels. And in any case there is every reason for thinking that Jesus repeated his teaching on different occasions with slight variations.

  1. 1. Only Luke speaks of so many thousands as having gathered. The word myrias means properly ‘ten thousand’ (in Acts 19:19 five ‘myriads’ amount to 50,000). But the term is often used indefinitely of a large crowd and that will be the meaning here. The article with it in the Greek may mean ‘the usual large crowd’. Luke also is the only one to tell us that the people trod upon one another, the press was so great. Though there can be no doubt that Jesus wished the crowd to hear what he said, he addressed his teaching to the disciples first. Those who professed to follow Jesus could not sit back comfortably and listen while Jesus made demands on people outside their number. Disciples must see the Master’s teaching as addressed to them in the first instance, whatever applications it may have to outsiders. Jesus began on this occasion with a warning against the leaven of the Pharisees. The metaphor would have been more obvious then than now, for people tended to make their own bread and everyone would be familiar with the way a little leaven slowly transforms a large lump of dough. Leaven speaks of a penetration that is slow, insidious and constant. In this case the leaven is hypocrisy. The practice of saying one thing and doing another eats at the moral life like a canker.

2–3. Many things could be said about hypocrisy, but on this occasion Jesus chooses to point out that it is short-sighted. The art of being a hypocrite depends on the ability to keep some things concealed. When concealment is no longer possible the hypocrite is inevitably unmasked. At present the Pharisees may have certain things covered up, or hidden. But in the end, on judgment day, all will be known. People may think they have said things safely in secret, but all will be brought into the light. They have whispered in private rooms. These are really ‘store rooms’, but, where walls could be easily dug through, store chambers tended to be inner rooms well away from exterior walls and thus the secondary meaning ‘inner rooms’ developed. But what has been whispered so secretly will be proclaimed upon the housetops. A housetop would give a speaker a first-rate platform from which his voice could sound out, so Jesus is referring to the fullest publicity.

Be ready for judgment (12:4–12)

The teaching about the Pharisees and the judgment leads naturally into a more general section on judgment and the importance of being prepared for it.

4–5. Jesus calls the disciples friends here only in the Synoptic Gospels (but cf. John 15:14). First he warns them that they must get their values straight. There is a natural tendency to fear those who may kill the body. The end of this life seems the ultimate disaster and we commonly fear it. But Jesus points out that people who kill can do no more. Death is their ultimate achievement. Their power extends no further. We should not fear those whose powers are so limited. Rather we should fear God whose authority extends beyond death and who has power to cast into hell. The fear of God is rather out of fashion these days; we much prefer to stress the love of God. But, while there is a sense in which perfect love casts out fear (1 John 4:18), there is another in which fear is quite compatible with love. This kind of fear is continually regarded in the Bible as a necessary ingredient in right living. It is an attitude compounded of a recognition of the greatness and the righteousness of God on the one hand and our readiness to sin on the other. Fear of this kind guards against presumption and must find its place in a right faith. Hell here is Gehenna, which is not to be confused with Hades, also translated ‘hell’ in the older versions. Hades is a general name for the place of departed spirits, whereas Gehenna carries the notion of punishment. The word derives from the Hebrew gē Hinnōm, ‘the valley of Hinnom’. This was a valley adjacent to Jerusalem where in earlier days children had been offered in sacrifice to the god Molech (Lev. 18:21; 1 Kgs 11:7, etc.). Josiah ended all this (2 Kgs 23:10), but the valley was regarded as accursed (Jer. 7:31ff.; 19:6). One ancient writer at least saw this as permanent: ‘This accursed valley is for those who are accursed for ever’ (1 Enoch 27:2). In New Testament times the place was used as a rubbish tip and no doubt a fire was always burning there. The associations of the term made it a fitting symbol for the perpetual torment of hell. A few commentators have held that the one with power to cast into hell is Satan, but this should certainly be rejected. The evil one can operate only within the limitations God assigns him and there is no indication that God ever gave him this power. Moreover we are not to fear Satan but to resist him (Jas 4:7; 1 Pet. 5:9). It is God who has power over the eternal issues and Jesus repeats, yes, I tell you, fear him!

6–7. But his basic concern is to reassure his friends, not to frighten them. He goes on immediately to the care God has for his people and illustrates from the little birds. Five sparrows were sold for two pennies. Matthew tells us that two sparrows went for a penny. Evidently one was thrown in for nothing when two pennyworth were bought. But not one of them (not even the free one!) is forgotten before God. God takes notice of the commonest and cheapest of birds. Much more, then, will he be concerned for people. Jesus brings out this point with the information that the hairs of our heads are all numbered. The importance of this does not lie in the actual count, but in the fact that God cares enough about his people to know the minutest detail about them. He knows things they do not know about themselves. So those who are of more value than many sparrows should face life without fear.

8–9. Our attitude to Jesus is all important. If anyone acknowledges him before people, Jesus will acknowledge him before the angels of God (Matthew has ‘before my Father who is in heaven’). This is warm encouragement for judgment day. But anyone who denies (‘disowns’, neb) Jesus will face the ultimate denial. He has refused to number himself among Jesus’ followers. When he stands before God his choice will be ratified. Jesus leaves his hearers in no doubt but that eternal issues are involved in their attitude to him. Moorman reminds us that there is more than one way of denying Jesus. These days, he thinks, we are unlikely to deny him in the same way as Peter, for example, did. But we may deny ‘the unique authority of his teaching, imagining that, on some points, we know better than he did, or that much of what he said can be explained away’. We may also deny his divinity and repudiate his claims. ‘In either case it is the sin of pride and self-assurance, man’s … ultimate denial of the supremacy of Christ and of God.’

  1. 10. This leads to the solemn thought that there is a sin so serious that it cannot be forgiven. Jesus introduces this with the statement that a word spoken against himself can be forgiven. This does not mean that such a word is a trifle. The preceding verse has shown something of the dignity of the Son of man: he is not to be taken lightly. Yet even sin against this august personage may be forgiven. People may blaspheme and then repent; the blasphemy is not their final word. But he who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit is in a much worse case. We must understand this, not of the uttering of any form of words, but of the set of the life (‘It denotes the conscious and wicked rejection of the saving power and grace of God towards man’). This blasphemy is so serious because it concerns the whole person, not a few words spoken on any one occasion. Matthew and Mark put these words in connection with the Beelzebul controversy and this helps us with the meaning. Then Jesus’ opponents attributed his works of mercy to the devil. They called good evil. People in such a situation cannot repent and seek forgiveness: they lack a sense of sin; they reject God’s competence to declare what is right. It is this continuing attitude that is the ultimate sin. God’s power to forgive is not abated. But this kind of sinner no longer has the capacity to repent and believe.8

11–12. But we should not think of the Holy Spirit primarily or only as one whom we must be careful not to blaspheme. He is our helper. He is present with God’s people, especially with God’s persecuted people, to give them the assistance they need when they stand before the authorities. Jesus speaks first of being brought before the synagogues, which points to persecution by the Jews. The synagogue could be a court or a school as well as a place of worship. He speaks also of the rulers and the authorities, a comprehensive expression which might refer to Jews or Gentiles or both. Being accused in this way could be a terrifying experience. But Jesus tells his own not to be anxious at such a time about what they are to answer (the Greek term is often used in the technical sense of ‘make a legal defence’). The reason? The Holy Spirit will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say (cf. 21:14f.). Notice that the Spirit’s teaching will come at that moment. He will not instruct people some time beforehand. What you ought to say might well be rendered ‘what you must say’. Jesus is concerned with the duty that rests compellingly on believers even in such a time of danger. He is not telling them how to secure acquittal. He is telling them how they may best serve God in their trying situation. The Spirit will inspire them with such a defence that through it the gospel will be proclaimed and God’s purposes be set forward.[8]

 

[1] Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 3, p. 226). InterVarsity Press.

[2] Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 3, p. 226). InterVarsity Press.

[3] Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 3, p. 227). InterVarsity Press.

[4] Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 3, p. 228). InterVarsity Press.

[5] Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (pp. 228–229). InterVarsity Press.

[6] Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (pp. 229–230). InterVarsity Press.

[7] Bock, D. L. (1994). Luke (Lk 12:1–12). InterVarsity Press.

[8] Morris, L. (1988). Luke: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 3, pp. 225–230). InterVarsity Press.